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Citation Help  

Citation Help
Last Updated: Sep 6, 2013 URL: Print Guide RSS Updates
Citation Help Print Page

Citation Examples



The citation system of the Modern Language Association (MLA) uses a simple, two-part approach. Parenthetical notations in the text of a paper point to complete citations in the alphabetical list of works cited at the end of the paper.


The citation system of the American Psychological Association (APA) also uses a two-part system, with parenthetical notations in the text referring to full citations in the list of references at the end of the paper.


The Chicago Manual of Style offers two systems:

One is called the "Author-Date" system. This system uses parenthetical notations in the text of the paper, and full citations in a works cited section at the end of the paper. It is generally used by writers in the physical sciences and social sciences.

The other is called the "Notes and Bibliography" system. This system uses either footnotes or endnotes, plus a bibliography at the end of the paper. It is generally used by writers in literature, history, or the arts.


Citation Reference Sources

Citation Reference

For detailed information about the most popular citation styles, good sources are:

Purdue OWL (Online Writing Lab)

Research and Documentation Online (Hacker and Fister)

See also:  Citing material from Special Collections & Archives 


If you need more in-depth information, we do, of course, have the print manuals in our collection.

The Chicago Manual of Style (Chicago)

Research Consultation Collection

808.02 C53 2010 

MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (MLA)

Research Consultation Collection

808.027 M6859 2009 

Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA)

Research Consultation Collection

808.06615 P9769 2010



Avoiding Plagiarism

Plagiarism often stems from sloppy research rather than a deliberate intention to cheat. Nevertheless, even unintentional failure to cite sources correctly and honestly may constitute plagiarism. Be sure you know how to avoid stealing the work of others.

Useful Sites

 Thanks to Brendan Rapple at Boston College for much of this information.



RefWorks is a citation manager, a tool that allows you to create your own personal database by importing references from text files or online databases. With RefWorks you can can insert  these references into your papers and format your bibliography, in almost any style, in seconds.  There is a bit of a learning curve at first, but in the long run using RefWorks will save you a great deal of time and energy.  

You will be asked to register the first time you use RefWorks.  To set-up an account from an off-campus computer, use the following Goucher group code to log in (RWGoucherC). This code is case sensitive.  Once you have your account set up, you will no longer need the code to access it.  


Citation Help in the Research Databases

Help Within the Research Databases

Some of the library's research databases offer citation help within the database itself. When you have the information for an individual article on the screen, look carefully to see if there is a citation option. For example the following examples show where to locate the citation help in three popular vendor's databases.  Be aware, these are computer generated, with human input.  Check for accuracy before you use!


Ebsco Databases
Ebsco citation icon
Credo Reference Credo cite icon
CQ Researcher

CQ Researcher cite icon


More Citation Managers

Help On the Web

A number of simple citation tools are available free on the Web. Here are a few you might like to experiment with. A Google search will reveal even more. Click a program's logo to access its Web site.

Easy Bib
Citation Center Zotero
Son of citation machine Bib Me


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